• Aakko E. (2004). Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Public Health. Wisconsin Medical Society; 103: 25-27.
    • Two-page document that defines risk communication and risk perception and summarizes key studies relating to effective risk communication in the public health context.
 
  • Andrulis DP, Siddiqui NJ, Gantner JL. (2007). Preparing racially and ethnically diverse communities for public health emergencies. Health Affairs, 26(5), 1269-79.
    • This study reviews resources and limitations and suggests future directions for integrating diverse communities into related strategies (including risk communication). It documents research and interventions, including promising models and practices that address preparedness for minorities. However, findings reveal a general lack of focus on diversity and suggest that future preparedness efforts need to fully integrate factors related to race, culture, and language into risk communication, public health training, measurement, coordination, and policy at all levels.
 
 
  • Bedrosian SR, Young CE, Smith LA, et al. (2016). Lessons of Risk Communication and Health Promotion - West Africa and the United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 65, 68-74.
    • Communication is an essential part of sustainable preparedness and long-term global health security. The 2014 Ebola epidemic demonstrated that tailored, culturally appropriate communication is one of the first activities responders use as new threats emerge, especially when public fear outpaces information that persons can use to protect themselves. This report summarizes the risk communication and health promotion activities and lessons learned in West Africa and the United State
 
  • Breckjord EB, Stern SA, Parker AM. (2012). Enhancing emergency preparedness, response, and recovery management for vulnerable populations: Literature review. Rand Health, Appendix A, 1-40.
    • This literature review was conducted to identify promising risk communication approaches and messaging strategies that address the communication limitations or barriers facing vulnerable populations before, during, and after a public health emergency. It offers insights into ways of improving public health emergency risk communication with vulnerable populations and suggestions as to how subsequent project tasks can further inform efforts to address vulnerable populations in emergency preparedness, response, and recovery. 
 
  • Chandler C, Fairhead J, Kelly A, et al. (2015). Ebola: limitations of correcting misinformation. The Lancet, 385, 1275-77.
    • The authors of this  Comment question the assumption that messaging based only biomedical facts can always correct local logic, concerns, and rumors. It is argued that most effective approaches to managing an Ebola-like crisis are likely to be diverse, locally sustainable and developed with respect for local cultures and beliefs.
 
  • Covello VT (2003). Best Practices in Public Health Risk and Crisis Communication. Journal of Health Communication, 8, 5-8.
    • This publication provides a review of the best practices in public health emergency risk communication. It offers guidelines for accepting and involving stakeholders in risk communication, as well as listening to individuals during a crisis.
 
    • This article grapples with the challenges of crisis and emergency risk communication with special populations during a pandemic. Recognizing that targeting messages to specific groups poses significant difficulties at that time, this article proposes a model of community engagement, disaster risk education, and crisis and emergency risk communication to prepare minority communities and government agencies to work effectively in a pandemic, build the capacity of each to respond, and strengthen the trust that is critical at such moments.
 
  • Dalrymple KE, Young R, Tully M. (2016). “Facts, Not Fear”. Science Communication, 38, 442-67.
    • Trust in many government organizations is low, creating a challenging environment for communication during outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, like Ebola. This paper presents a thematic analysis of 1,010 tweets and four Twitter chats during the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak. The authors argue that an emphasis on certainty in a rapidly changing situation leaves organizations vulnerable to charges of unpreparedness or obfuscation.
 
  • Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). (2016). Emergency Support Function # 2: Communication Annex. Washington: FEMA.
    • This annex document to the U.S National Response Framework focuses on describing the communication infrastructures and strategies required during an emergency response.
 
 
 
  • Fast SM, Mekaru S, Brownstein JS, et al. (2015). The Role of Social Mobilization in Controlling Ebola Virus in Lofa County, Liberia. PLoS Currents Outbreaks, 1.  
    • Using data from the 2014-2016 Ebola crisis in Liberia, this study models the spread of the Ebola virus with and without behavior change. This research highlights the importance of risk communication and awareness induced behavior changed in curbing the Ebola outbreak in Liberia.
 
 
  • Glik DC. (2007). Risk communication for public health emergencies. Annual Review of Public Health, 28, 33-54.        
    • This review defines crisis risk communication, traces its origins to a number of applied fields, and then shows how basic principles have become incorporated into emergency preparedness and risk communication for public health. Literature from four different disciplines that inform crisis risk communications are reviewed. These are (i) environmental risk communication, (ii) disaster management, (iii) health promotion and communication, and (iv) media and communication studies.
 
  • Gray GM, Ropeik DP. (2002). Dealing with the dangers of fear: the role of risk communication. Health Affairs, 21(6), 106-16.
    • This essay argues for greater emphasis on risk communication to help people keep their fears in perspective. Effective communication, not only through what the government says but implicit in the actions it takes, empowers people to make wiser choices in their own lives, and to support wise choices by society in applying limited resources to maximize public and environmental health.
 
 
  • Institute of Medicine. (2010). The 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Campaign: Summary of a Workshop Series. Washington: The National Academies Press.
    • The Institute of Medicine held a number of workshops to gather lessons learned from the vaccination campaigns during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the United States. The participants' past experiences, strategies, and recommendations are summarized in this report.
 
 
 
  • Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University. (2016). Ebola Risk Communication Project in Liberia: Lessons in Crisis Communication.
    • This report by the Milken Institute School of Public Health provides insights into the channels, types, and reliability of information shared with the Liberian population during the 2014-2016 Ebola crisis. The data analyzed in this report reveal ways and areas to improve with regard to future crisis communication strategies.
 
  • Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). (2014). Risk Communication Checklist for Ebola. Washington: PAHO.
    • A Risk Communication Action Planned developed by PAHO outlining steps for the implementation of a national risk communication for Ebola.
 
  • Ropeik D. (2007). Risk Communication, an overlooked took for improving Public Health. Maxey-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine: Fifteenth Edition: McGraw Hill Professional.
    • This book chapter outlines the evolution of the definition of risk communications and explains how the biology of fear and the psychology of risk perception can provide insight into developing better risk communications strategies while using real life events and crises.
 
 
  • Savoia E, Lin L, Viswanath K. (2013). Communications in public health emergency preparedness: a systematic review of the literature. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, 11(3), 170-84.
    • This systematic literature review to describe current research in the area of communication to the public in public health emergency preparedness, focusing on the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and communication as well as preparedness outcomes. A total of 131 articles were included for final review. The results show the need for empirical research to determine what type of communication messages can be effective in achieving preparedness outcomes across various population groups. They suggest that a real-time analysis of the information environment is valuable in knowing what is being communicated to the public and could be used for course correction of public health messages during a crisis.
       
  • Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. (2016). Risk Communication: An Integral Element in Public Health Emergencies. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 7, 12.
    • This letter to the Editor of the International Journal of Preventive medicine explains the importance of risk communication is preventing and responding to public health crises.
 
    • This 2015 USAID blog post describes the innovative way USAID’s Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (HC3) initiative designed the DeySay SMS system, which used local healthcare workers and text messages to monitor, track and report rumors about Ebola across Liberia, allowing for more effective rumor tracking and debunking.
 
  • Toppenberg-Pejcic D, Noyes J, Allen T, et al. (2018). Emergency risk communication: lessons learned from a rapid review of recent gray literature on Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Health Communication, 1-19.    
    • A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. A rapid content analysis of included sources was undertaken with relevant text either extracted verbatim or summarized and mapped against the questions. A database subset was created for each question and citations were assigned to the subset(s) for which they contained relevant information. Multiple designations per document were common. Database subsets were used to synthesize the results into a coherent narrative.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  • U.S. Center For Disease Prevention and Control. Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) And Ebola 2016. Atlanta: CDC.
    • A Risk Communication Action Planned developed by CDC following the 2014-2016 Ebola crisis outlining steps for the implementation of a national risk communication specifically for Ebola.
 
 
  • Vaughan E, Tinker T. (2009). Effective health risk communication about pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations. American Journal of Public Health, 99(S2), 324-32.
    • The consequences of pandemic influenza for vulnerable populations will depend partly on the effectiveness of health risk communications. Strategic planning should fully consider how life circumstances, cultural values, and perspectives on risk influence behavior during a pandemic. These authors summarize recent scientific evidence on communication challenges and examine how sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize or facilitate public health interventions that require a cooperative public.
 
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2004). Best practices for communicating with the public during an outbreak. Geneva: WHO.
    • This report was developed after the SARS epidemic. The first half of the report focuses on past outbreak experiences and describes the communication challenges. The second half turns these past experiences into best practices and recommendations for communication during an outbreak.
 
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2005). Outbreak Communication Guidelines. Geneva: WHO.
    • This document was developed by WHO following an extensive literature review on risk communications during infectious disease outbreaks - the results of this review are summarized here in a step by step list of best practices.
 
 
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2015). Chapter 7: Risk and crisis communication in: Endericks T, McCloskey B, Vincent E, et al., eds. Public Health For Mass Gathering: Key Considerations. Geneva: WHO.
    • Book chapter developed by WHO describing best practice in risk communication in the context of mass gathering. The recommendation provided in this chapter can be applied to many public health emergency situations, including infectious disease outbreaks.
 
  • World Health Organization (WHO). Risk Communication in the context of Zika virus 2016. Geneva: WHO
    • This document developed by WHO provides interim step by step guidance for communicating risk around Zika virus, its transmission channels and the potential implications of infection.
 
 
 
 
  • Xiang, D., Kontos, C., & Linos, A. Risk Communication in times of an epidemic or pandemic. Rome: ASSET.    
    • This issue of the ASSET paper series, titled Risk Communication in Times of an Epidemic or Pandemic, is dedicated to the discussion of risk communication. Specifically, topics include Communicating about uncertainty, Communicating Risk in an Epidemic or Pandemic, and a brief comment about the role of new technologies such as social media, and their advantages and disadvantages in risk communication.