• Adams DA, Thomas KR, Jajosky RA, et al. (2017). Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions — United States, 2015. MMWR, 64, 1-143
    • The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition—United States, 2015 contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2015. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists.
 
  • Adams DA, Thomas KR, Jajosky R, et al. (2016). Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions — United States, 2014. MMWR, 63, 1-152.
    • The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition—United States, 2014 contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2014. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists.
 
  • Adams D, Fullerton K, Jajosky R, et al. (2015). Summary of notifiable infectious diseases and conditions—United States, 2013. MMWR, 62(53), 1-122.      
    • The Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Condition—United States, 2013 contains the official statistics, in tabular and graphic form, for the reported occurrence of nationally notifiable infectious diseases and conditions in the United States for 2013. These statistics are collected and compiled from reports sent by U.S. state and territory, New York City, and District of Columbia health departments to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), which is operated by CDC in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists.

 

  • Anema A, Druyts E, Hollmeyer HG, et al. (2012). Descriptive review and evaluation of the functioning of the International Health Regulations (IHR) Annex 2. Globalization and Health, 8(1), 1-9.          
    • The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) was developed with the aim of governing international responses to public health risks and emergencies. The document requires all 194 World Health Organization (WHO) Member States to detect, assess, notify and report any potential public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under specific timelines. Annex 2 of the IHR outlines decision-making criteria for State-appointed National Focal Points to report potential PHEICs to the WHO, and is a critical component to the effective functioning of the IHRs. The aim of this study was to review and evaluate the functioning of Annex 2 across WHO-reporting States Parties. 

 

  • Edelstein M, Heymann DL, Giesecke J, et al. (2012). Validity of International Health Regulations in reporting emerging infectious diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(7), 1115-20.
    • Understanding which emerging infectious diseases are of international public health concern is vital. The International Health Regulations include a decision instrument to help countries determine which public health events are of international concern and require reporting to the World Health Organization (WHO) on the basis of seriousness, unusualness, international spread and trade, or need for travel restrictions. This study examined the validity of the International Health Regulations decision instrument in reporting emerging infectious disease to WHO by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value.

 

  • Garcell HG, Hernandez TMF, Abdo EAB, et al. (2014). Evaluation of the timeliness and completeness of communicable disease reporting: Surveillance in The Cuban Hospital, Qatar. Qatar Medical Journal, 1, 50-56.
    • This descriptive study sought to evaluate hospital-based surveillance of communicable diseases using the elements of timeliness and data quality. Results suggested that the quality of essential data and timeliness was not sufficient to meet the needs of the health system. The authors conclude that additional studies should focus on the evaluation of time delay for diagnosis of high priority diseases.

 

  • Gostin LO, Ayala AS. (2017). Global health security in an era of explosive pandemic potential. Journal of National Security Law & Policy, 9, 53-78.    
    • The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to infectious diseases, creating a serious threat to global health security that we must address before it becomes unmanageable. This article makes the case for fundamental reform of the international system to safeguard global health security. The authors build on the action agenda offered by international commissions formed in the wake of the Ebola epidemic, calling for the recommended “peace dividend” to strengthen global preparedness, for the United Nations to play a greater role in responding to major global health and humanitarian emergencies, and for an effective and efficient R&D strategy with multiple stakeholders identifying R&D priorities and leading a coordinated response.

 

  • Haustein T, Hollmeyer H, Hardiman M. et al. (2011). Should this event be notified to the World Health Organization? Reliability of the International Health Regulations notification assessment process. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(4), 296-303.    
  • Annex 2 of the International Health Regulations provides a decision instrument for determining whether a given event is notifiable. The decision instrument defines an event as notifiable if it satisfies two or more of the following four criteria: (i) the event has a serious public health impact; (ii) the event is unusual or unexpected; (iii) there is a significant risk of international spread; (iv) there is a significant risk of international travel or trade restrictions. This study investigates the reliability of the public health event notification assessment process under the IHR.

 

  • Heymann DL, Hodgson A, Freedman DO, et al. (2016). Zika virus and microcephaly: why is this situation a PHEIC? Lancet, 387(10020), 719-21. 
  • When the Director-General of WHO declared that reported clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders are a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), it was on the advice of an Emergency Committee of the International Health Regulations and of other experts whom had previously consulted. This article, authored the members of the Emergency Committee, describes what about the situation constituted it a PHEIC.

 

  • Janati A, Hosseiny M, Gouya MM, et al. (2015). Communicable Disease Reporting Systems in the World: A Systematic Review Article. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 44(11), 1453-65.
    • Communicable disease reporting and surveillance system often have poor infrastructure and support. Improvements in reporting quality can pose challenges and require an accurate and efficient reporting system at all levels. This study systematically evaluates reporting systems of communicable diseases.

 

  • Kohl KS, Thornton C, Fernandez J, et al. (2014). Notifications of Public Health Events under the International Health Regulations–5 Year US Experience. Online Journal of Public Health Informatics, 6(1), e104.
    • The International Health Regulations (IHR) require countries to establish a point of contact responsible for notifying WHO of potential public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC). This article examines the public health impact in the US of the notification requirement of potential public health emergencies of PHEICs under the IHR.

 

  • Mwatondo AJ, Ng’ang’a Z, Maina C, et al. (2016). Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya, 2013. PanAfrican Medical Journal, 23, 165-72.
    • Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. These authors conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya.

 

 

  • Pan American Health Organization. 2017. Multilateral IHR NFP Strengthening Workshop Toolkit.  Washington: PAHO.
    • The Multilateral IHR NFP Strengthening Workshop Toolkit is a set of resources (guidance, presentations, templates, and examples) designed for use by National International Health Regulations Focal Point (IHR NFPs) to encourage peer-to-peer and WHO engagements on strengthening NFP capacity.

 

  • World Health Organization (2010). WHO Guidance for the use of Annex 2 of the International Health Regulations (2005). Geneva: WHO.
    • Under the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR (2005)), States Parties are required to carry out an assessment of public health events arising in their territories utilizing the decision instrument contained in Annex 2 of the Regulations, and then to notify WHO of all qualifying events within 24 hours of such an assessment. The purpose of the WHO guidance on Annex 2 is to help national authorities to use the decision instrument in assessing public health events that may require notification to WHO.

 

  • World Health Organization (2007). Designation/establishment of National IHR Focal Points. Geneva: WHO.
    • The International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR(2005)) define a National IHR Focal Point (NFP)as "the national centre, designated by each State Party which shall be accessible at all times for communications with WHO IHR Contact Points under these Regulations". This document outlines the mandatory components of terms of reference for NFPs and how to designate or establish NFPs.